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PA4-The time of architecture

The origins:

(B.C. 1.600.000–200.000) HOMO ERECTUS: he moves to the north and learns how to make fire, thus he invents a “home” that is a place with fire for him. To provide stability, the homo erectus began the now-famous building with huts constructed of branches and some stone. They didn’t stay in there for long, though, because they were hunters.MO ERECTUS: he moves to the north and learns how to make fire, thus he invents a “home” that is a place with fire for him.

100.000 – 40.000 B.C.

With the homo neanderthalensis graves started to appear to pay a tribute to the dead.He lives in caverns in North Africa ,Europe and the east.

40.000 B.C
The new invention was dwellings, which were circular plant and domed buildings with a frame covered in animal skins. They can reach lengths of up to 9 meters.

4000 B.C. – 8000 B.C.

The invention of agriculture altered the distribution of architecture. The first cities appeared on the scene. The first cities had protective walls and a variety of structures.

PROTOHISTORY

it was an era of prosperity marked by the beggining of writting and represented by ziggurats

ziggurats

The Egyptians:

3500 BC

Ancient Egyptian architecture is distinguished by the use of ashlars carved into huge blocks and solid columns to create a linteled structural system in colossal structures.

The greeks:

1.200 – 146 B.C

The striving for balance between vertical and horizontal load-bearing elements is represented in Greek architecture. The Greeks, like the Egyptians, excelled at large-scale structures such as temples, stadiums, theaters, and large residences.

The romans:

(1.100 B.C.):

Roman architect is the magnificent architecture of the inner confined space, as well as the grandiose architecture of the outside space. The Romans were able to experiment with interior space, sunlight, and shadows thanks to the discovery of concrete.The most significant technical advancement was the use of arches, vaults, and domes to cover huge public spaces (except for temples).Civil works, public buildings, cities, religious structures, and the domus were all created by them.

Roman domus

High middle ages the byzantine

6th Century 

Religious structures and spaces are the foundations of Byzantine architecture. They normally make their sculptures out of stone. The Hagia Sophia is the most well-known structure.But the military architecture also gained a lot of importance.

High middle ages the lombards

6-8th Century

They had essentially little architectural tradition, although stained glass and colorful stones to imitate jewels were well-known.

High middle agesthe visigoths

7-8th Century

The style was influenced by the Aegean and Syrian regions and was ecclesiastical architecture.Now only small churches remain.

Islamic:

Islamic architecture created new types of architecture wether it be hygienic like Hammam or religious purposes like the mosque. The decoration helps create an atmosphere through the play of light and color. Techniques such as pottery and plaster (Muqarnas) are used.

ROMANESQUE: 

(10-12 th century)

The Romanesque style has peaked in the last few centuries and is associated with the most popular Norman art. Due to political unrest, feudal lords usually fortified the castle cities and palaces (houses and military squares).

Gothic Architecture:

(12-15/16th century)

It features verticality in both the tower and the very high nave, made possible by the pointed arch and rib vault, whose weight is shifted from the buttress to the outer buttress, making the walls lighter and more versatile. Of the chapel on the side of the house.

RENAISSANCE: 

(15-16th century)

It starts with the rediscovery of roman architecture.The current of humanism was also created, it put the man in the center of everything.

Baroque:

(17-18th century)

Baroque architecture and later Rococo are attempts to achieve the maximum possible effect in the manipulation of space of form, light, color and sensual details. Baroque is spatial liberation from the rules of the treatise.

Neoclassicism:

(18-19th century)

After the plethora of Baroque and Rococo there was a radical shift to rational architecture in which the dominance of structural truth over visual effects was discovered.

20th Century:

art nouveau , modernism, cubism, futurism